What is Vulvar Cancer? How Is It Treated?


What is Vulvar Cancer? Understanding Symptoms, Risk Factors, and Treatment Options

Vulvar cancer is a type of cancer that affects the vulva, which is the external part of a woman’s genitalia. It is a rare condition that accounts for approximately 4% of all gynecologic cancers. While it can affect women of all ages, it is more common in women over 50 years old. In this article, we will discuss the risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of vulvar cancer.

I. What is Vulvar Cancer?

A. Definition

B. Types of Vulvar Cancer

II. Who is At High Risk of Vulvar Cancer?

A. Age

B. HPV Infection

C. Smoking

D. Chronic Skin Conditions

E. Previous History of Cancer

F. Weakened Immune System

G. Family History of Cancer

III. How Common is Vulvar Cancer?

A. Incidence and Prevalence

B. Trends and Projections

IV. What Are the Symptoms of Vulvar Cancer?

A. Early Symptoms

B. Advanced Symptoms

C. Other Possible Symptoms

V. How is Vulvar Cancer Diagnosed?

A. Physical Exam and Medical History

B. Biopsy and Lab Tests

C. Imaging Tests

D. Staging of Vulvar Cancer

VI. What is Vulvar Cancer Treatment?

A. Surgery

B. Radiation Therapy

C. Chemotherapy

D. Targeted Therapy

E. Palliative Care

F. Integrative Therapy

VII. How Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

A. HPV Vaccination

B. Safe Sex Practices

C. Smoking Cessation

D. Proper Hygiene and Skin Care

E. Regular Check-Ups

Vulvar cancer is a serious condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. While it is relatively rare, certain women are at higher risk, including those over 50, with a history of HPV infection, smoking, chronic skin conditions, weakened immune system, and family history of cancer. Symptoms of vulvar cancer include itching, pain, abnormal bleeding, and unusual growths or bumps on the vulva. Diagnosis involves a physical exam, biopsy, and imaging tests. Treatment options depend on the stage and severity of the cancer, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and palliative care.

Prevention of vulvar cancer includes HPV vaccination, safe sex practices, smoking cessation, proper hygiene and skin care, and regular check-ups. It is important for women to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of vulvar cancer, and to seek medical attention if they experience any unusual symptoms or changes in their vulvar area.


Vulvar cancer is a rare but serious condition that can affect women of all ages. While certain risk factors increase the likelihood of developing vulvar cancer, there are ways to prevent it and reduce the risk. It is important for women to be aware of the symptoms and seek medical attention if they experience any changes or abnormalities in their vulvar area.


  1. What is the survival rate for vulvar cancer?
  • The survival rate for vulvar cancer depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the woman’s age and overall health, and the effectiveness of treatment. The 5-year survival rate for women with vulvar cancer ranges from 86% to 18%, depending on the stage of the cancer.
  1. Is vulvar cancer curable?
  • Yes, vulvar cancer is curable, especially if it is detected and treated early. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and palliative care.
  1. What are the long-term side effects of vulvar cancer treatment?
  • The long-term side effects of vulvar cancer treatment depend on the type and extent of treatment, as well as the woman’s age and overall health. Common side effects may include pain, swelling, scarring, sexual dysfunction, and lymphedema.
  1. Is there a genetic component to vulvar cancer?
  • While there is no clear genetic link to vulvar cancer, certain gene mutations, such as those associated with Lynch syndrome, may increase the risk of developing vulvar cancer.
  1. How often should women get screened for vulvar cancer?
  • The American Cancer Society does not currently recommend routine screening for vulvar cancer in women who are not at high risk. However, women who are at higher risk, such as those with a history of HPV infection or chronic skin conditions, may benefit from regular check-ups and screening tests. Women should talk to their healthcare provider about their individual risk factors and screening recommendations.
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