What is Stress? How to Manage Stress?


What Happens to the Body During Stress? Understanding the Physical and Psychological Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Management

Stress is a normal part of life, and everyone experiences it from time to time. However, when stress becomes chronic, it can take a toll on the body and mind, leading to a range of physical and psychological symptoms. In this article, we will explore what happens to the body during stress, the physical and psychological symptoms of stress, how stress is diagnosed, and the various methods of stress management.

What is Stress?

Stress is the body’s response to a perceived threat, whether it is physical or psychological. When we perceive a threat, the body’s natural response is to release stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline, which prepare the body for action. This response is commonly referred to as the “fight or flight” response, as it prepares the body to either fight the perceived threat or run away from it.

What Happens to the Body During Stress?

When the body is under stress, it goes through a series of changes to prepare for action. These changes include:

Increased Heart Rate and Blood Pressure

The body increases the heart rate and blood pressure to pump more blood to the muscles and organs, preparing them for action.

Rapid Breathing

The body increases the rate of breathing to increase oxygen supply to the muscles and organs.

Dilated Pupils

The pupils dilate to allow more light into the eyes, improving vision.

Increased Muscle Tension

The muscles tense up to prepare for action.

Release of Stress Hormones

The body releases stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline to provide an extra boost of energy.

What Are the Physical Symptoms of Stress?

The physical symptoms of stress can vary from person to person, but some common symptoms include:


Stress can cause tension headaches, which are characterized by a dull, aching pain around the head.

Muscle Tension and Pain

Stress can cause muscle tension and pain, especially in the neck, shoulders, and back.

Digestive Issues

Stress can cause digestive issues such as stomach pain, bloating, and diarrhea.


Stress can cause fatigue and exhaustion, making it difficult to get through the day.

Sleep Disturbances

Stress can cause sleep disturbances such as insomnia, restless sleep, or nightmares.

What Are the Psychological Symptoms of Stress?

Stress can also have a range of psychological symptoms, including:


Stress can cause feelings of anxiety, worry, and nervousness.


Stress can cause feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and despair.


Stress can cause irritability, mood swings, and difficulty controlling emotions.

Cognitive Issues

Stress can cause cognitive issues such as difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, and confusion.

Behavioral Changes

Stress can cause behavioral changes such as overeating or undereating, using drugs or alcohol to cope, or engaging in reckless behavior.

How Is Stress Diagnosed?

Stress is not a medical condition that can be diagnosed with a test or scan. Instead, doctors typically diagnose stress based on a person’s symptoms and medical history. If a person is experiencing physical or psychological symptoms of stress, they should talk to their doctor about their concerns.

What is Stress Management?

Stress management is the process of identifying and managing the sources of stress in your life. There are many different methods of stress management, including:


Regular exercise can help reduce stress by releasing endorphins, the body’s natural mood boosters.

Relaxation Techniques

Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, meditation, and yoga can help reduce stress and promote relaxation.


Therapy can help a person learn coping skills and strategies for managing stress. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, for example, can help a person identify negative thought patterns and replace them with more positive ones.

Lifestyle Changes

Making positive lifestyle changes such as eating a healthy diet, getting enough sleep, and reducing caffeine and alcohol consumption can also help reduce stress.

Time Management

Effective time management can help a person feel more in control of their schedule and reduce stress related to deadlines and obligations.

Social Support

Having a strong support network of friends and family can help a person cope with stress and provide a sense of comfort and belonging.

How to Manage Stress?

Managing stress requires a proactive approach, which involves identifying sources of stress and implementing stress management strategies. Here are some effective ways to manage stress:

Identify Triggers

Identify what triggers your stress response and try to avoid or minimize these triggers.

Prioritize Self-Care

Make self-care a priority by taking care of your physical, emotional, and mental health needs.

Practice Relaxation Techniques

Practice relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, or guided meditation to reduce stress and promote relaxation.

Exercise Regularly

Engage in regular physical activity to reduce stress and improve overall health and well-being.

Connect with Others

Connect with others by spending time with friends and family or joining a support group to help reduce stress and provide emotional support.

Seek Professional Help

If you’re experiencing chronic stress that is impacting your quality of life, seek professional help from a mental health professional.

Conflict and Stress Management

Conflict can be a major source of stress, and learning conflict resolution skills can help reduce stress in interpersonal relationships. Effective conflict resolution skills include:

Active Listening

Listen to the other person’s perspective and try to understand their point of view.

Communicate Effectively

Use “I” statements to express your feelings and needs, and avoid blaming or criticizing the other person.

Find Common Ground

Look for areas of agreement and compromise to find a solution that works for everyone.

Respect Differences

Respect differences in opinions and perspectives, and avoid trying to change the other person’s beliefs or values.

Crisis and Stress Management

Crisis situations can cause significant stress and require a different approach to stress management. In crisis situations, it’s important to:

Stay Calm

Remain calm and focused in the face of adversity, and avoid panic or overreacting.

Assess the Situation

Assess the situation and identify potential solutions or resources that can help.

Seek Support

Seek support from friends, family, or mental health professionals to help cope with the stress of the crisis.

Take Care of Yourself

Make self-care a priority by getting enough sleep, eating a healthy diet, and engaging in relaxation techniques to reduce stress.


Stress is a normal part of life, but chronic stress can take a toll on the body and mind, leading to a range of physical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the physical and psychological symptoms of stress, as well as effective stress management strategies, can help reduce the negative impact of stress on your life.


  1. What is the best way to manage stress?

There are many effective ways to manage stress, including exercise, relaxation techniques, therapy, and social support.

  1. Can stress cause physical health problems?

Yes, chronic stress can lead to a range of physical health problems, including headaches, muscle tension and pain, digestive issues, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.

  1. How is stress diagnosed?

Stress is typically diagnosed based on a person’s symptoms and medical history, as there is no specific test or scan for stress.

  1. How can conflict be a source of stress?

Conflict can cause stress when it leads to disagreements, tension, and negative emotions in interpersonal relationships.

  1. What should I do if I’m experiencing chronic stress?

If you’re experiencing chronic stress that is impacting your quality of life, seek professional help from a mental health professional who can help you develop coping skills and strategies for managing stress.

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