Infertility Symptoms in Men


What is Male Infertility and How to Treat it: A Comprehensive Guide

Male infertility is a common but often overlooked issue that affects millions of men worldwide. In this article, we’ll explore what male infertility is, what causes it, how to diagnose it, and the various treatment options available.

Understanding Male Infertility

Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive a child after a year of trying. While many people assume that infertility is primarily a female problem, it affects both men and women equally. In fact, male infertility is the sole cause or a contributing factor in about 40% of infertility cases.

What Causes Infertility in Men?

There are many possible causes of male infertility, ranging from hormonal imbalances to structural abnormalities. Some of the most common causes include:

Hormonal Imbalances

Hormonal imbalances, such as low testosterone levels, can affect sperm production and reduce a man’s fertility.

Structural Abnormalities

Structural abnormalities, such as blockages in the tubes that carry sperm, can prevent sperm from reaching the egg.


Varicocele is a condition in which the veins in the scrotum become enlarged and twisted, which can affect sperm production and quality.


Infections, such as sexually transmitted infections, can damage the reproductive system and reduce fertility.

Lifestyle Factors

Lifestyle factors, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and drug use, can also reduce a man’s fertility.

What Are the Symptoms of Infertility in Men?

Unlike women, men often do not experience any symptoms of infertility. However, some possible signs of male infertility include:

Low Sperm Count

A low sperm count is one of the most common signs of male infertility. A man is considered to have a low sperm count if he has fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen.

Abnormal Sperm Shape or Motility

Sperm with abnormal shape or motility may not be able to fertilize an egg.

Pain or Swelling in the Testicles

Pain or swelling in the testicles can be a sign of an underlying condition that affects fertility.

Sexual Dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, or other sexual problems can affect a man’s ability to conceive.

Male Infertility Test

If a couple has been trying to conceive for a year without success, both partners should undergo fertility testing. For men, the most common male infertility test is a semen analysis.

A semen analysis involves collecting a sample of semen and analyzing it for factors such as sperm count, motility, and morphology. Other tests may include blood tests to check hormone levels, genetic testing to identify any inherited conditions that may affect fertility, and imaging tests to look for structural abnormalities.

Men’s Infertility Treatment

The treatment for male infertility depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, making lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking or reducing alcohol consumption, can improve fertility. In other cases, medication or surgery may be necessary.


Medications such as clomiphene, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) may be prescribed to increase sperm production.


Surgery may be necessary to correct structural abnormalities, such as blockages in the tubes that carry sperm or varicoceles.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)

Assisted reproductive technologies, such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF), may be used in cases where other treatments are not effective.


  1. Can male infertility be prevented?
  • While some causes of male infertility, such as genetic conditions, cannot be prevented, making lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and reducing alcohol consumption can improve fertility.
  1. Can male infertility be cured?
  • The treatment for male infertility depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, treatment can improve fertility, but it may not always be possible to completely cure infertility.
  1. Is male infertility a sign of a serious health condition?
  • Male infertility can be a sign of an underlying health condition, such as a hormonal imbalance or infection. It’s important to undergo testing and receive appropriate treatment to address any underlying issues.
  1. Can stress cause male infertility?
  • While stress can affect overall health, there is no clear evidence that it directly causes male infertility. However, stress can contribute to lifestyle factors, such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, which can affect fertility.
  1. How can I support my partner if he is dealing with male infertility?
  • Dealing with infertility can be a challenging and emotional experience. It’s important to offer emotional support to your partner and to work together as a team to explore treatment options and find the best path forward.
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