Cause and treatment of blood in the urine


What is Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)?

Blood in the urine, also known as hematuria, refers to the presence of red blood cells in the urine. The color of urine ranges from pink, red, or brown, depending on the amount of blood present. Hematuria can be categorized into two types – gross hematuria and microscopic hematuria. Gross hematuria is when the urine visibly appears pink or red due to the presence of blood, whereas microscopic hematuria is only detected through laboratory analysis of the urine.

Causes of Hematuria

Hematuria can occur due to various reasons. Here are some common causes of hematuria:

1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

UTIs are a common cause of hematuria, especially in women. A UTI occurs when bacteria enter the urinary tract and infect the bladder, urethra, or kidneys. The inflammation caused by the infection can lead to bleeding in the urinary tract, resulting in hematuria.

2. Kidney Stones

Kidney stones can cause hematuria when they pass through the urinary tract. The stones can damage the lining of the urinary tract, leading to bleeding.

3. Enlarged Prostate

An enlarged prostate can cause hematuria in men. The prostate gland is located beneath the bladder and surrounds the urethra. As the prostate enlarges, it can put pressure on the urethra, leading to hematuria.

4. Cancer

Cancer of the bladder, kidney, or prostate can cause hematuria. Cancerous cells can damage the lining of the urinary tract, leading to bleeding.

5. Medications

Certain medications such as blood thinners, aspirin, and penicillin can cause hematuria.

Diagnosis of Hematuria

If a person experiences hematuria, they should see a doctor immediately. The doctor will perform a physical examination, review the person’s medical history, and order diagnostic tests to determine the cause of the hematuria.

1. Urinalysis

The doctor will analyze a urine sample to check for the presence of red blood cells, bacteria, and other substances.

2. Imaging Tests

Imaging tests such as CT scans, ultrasounds, and X-rays can help determine if there are any abnormalities in the urinary tract.

3. Cystoscopy

A cystoscopy is a procedure that involves inserting a thin tube with a camera into the urethra to view the inside of the bladder and urinary tract.

Treatment of Hematuria

The treatment of hematuria depends on the underlying cause. Here are some common treatments:

1. Antibiotics

If the hematuria is caused by a UTI, antibiotics may be prescribed to clear the infection.

2. Surgery

If kidney stones or cancer are causing hematuria, surgery may be necessary to remove the stones or cancerous cells.

3. Medications

Medications such as alpha-blockers may be prescribed to men with an enlarged prostate.


Blood in the urine, or hematuria, is a concerning symptom that requires medical attention. The underlying cause of hematuria can range from UTIs to cancer, and treatment varies depending on the cause. It is essential to see a doctor promptly if hematuria is experienced.


1. Can strenuous exercise cause hematuria?

Yes, strenuous exercise can cause hematuria. The stress of exercise can cause small blood vessels in the urinary tract to break, leading to bleeding.

2. Can hematuria be prevented?

Preventing hematuria depends on the underlying cause. For instance, UTIs can be prevented by practicing good hygiene and staying hydrated. Drinking plenty of water can also help prevent kidney stones, which can cause hematuria.

4. Can hematuria be a sign of a serious medical condition?

Yes, hematuria can be a sign of a serious medical condition, such as cancer of the bladder, kidney, or prostate. It is essential to see a doctor if hematuria is experienced to determine the underlying cause.

5. Is it safe to ignore hematuria if it goes away on its own?

No, it is not safe to ignore hematuria, even if it goes away on its own. Hematuria can be a sign of a serious medical condition that requires prompt medical attention. It is essential to see a doctor to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

6. Is hematuria common?

Hematuria is not uncommon and can affect people of all ages and genders. However, the prevalence varies depending on the underlying cause and demographic factors.

7. How is hematuria different from menstruation in females?

Hematuria refers to the presence of red blood cells in the urine, while menstruation refers to the shedding of the uterine lining through the vagina. In females, it is important to differentiate between the two to determine the underlying cause of bleeding.

8. Can hematuria cause pain or discomfort?

Hematuria itself may not cause pain or discomfort, but the underlying condition that is causing the bleeding can lead to pain or discomfort. For example, kidney stones can cause sharp pain in the back, side, or lower abdomen.

9. Can hematuria be a side effect of certain foods or beverages?

Certain foods or beverages such as beets, blackberries, and rhubarb can cause the urine to appear red or pink, leading to false-positive results for hematuria. It is important to inform the doctor of any recent dietary changes before undergoing diagnostic tests for hematuria.

10. Can hematuria be a temporary condition?

Yes, hematuria can be a temporary condition, especially if it is caused by a minor infection or injury. However, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any serious underlying conditions.

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